The Ikhwân al-Safâ’ or “Brethren of Purity”, as their name is commonly translated, are the authors of one of the most complete Medieval. The Ikhwan al-Safa’ (Brethren of Purity) were the anonymous adepts of a tenth- century esoteric fraternity of lettered urbanites that was principally based in Basra . The philosophy of the group of Arab philosophers of the fourth or fifth century ah ( tenth or eleventh century ad) known as the Ikhwan al-Safa’ (Brethren of Purity).

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The incorporation of philosophical and theological doctrines in their writings were done teleogically. It refers to more profound and special treatises for fuller information on the several sciences it touches upon, but it does claim to touch on all sciences, all departments of knowledge, and to set forth their leading results.

What they do lay claim to is system and completeness. In contrast to Baffioni—, Heck— seems to side with Netton’s reading of the intellect-guide in terms of a rational intellect. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

In these meetings, which were held once every twelve days and were restricted to the members and followers of the group, subjects of metaphysical and esoteric nature were discussed.

The Ikhwan al-Safa’ took over the theory of Democritus of Abdera d.

Festschrift fur Miklos Maroth zum siebzigsten GuburtstagBudapest: Everything begins from Him and everything returns to Him. Not all Pythagorean doctrines were followed, however.

Byzantine science Chinese astronomy Medieval European science Indian astronomy.

Ikhwan al-Safa’

The first thing which the Creator produced and called into existence is a simple, spiritual, extremely perfect and excellent substance in which the form of all things is contained. These spheres, which are eleven in number, vary in the ikhsan of their shells, in proportion to the magnitude of the planets with which they are inset.

The process of creation is divided ikhwsn Further, they espoused the view of the Ionians, and Thales d. Together, they leave themselves and the ensnaring net to a nearby ratwho is gracious enough to gnaw the birds free of the net; impressed by the rat’s altruistic deed, a crow becomes the rat’s friend. Everybody should be ikhwqn free to embrace the religion he chooses; he may also change his religion, perhaps often too, though he is expected to look for the best religion in his time.


Ikhwân al-Safâ’

Rofa, one of the authors of the Ikhwan al safa, was extremely ignorant in eafa, and he was ikhwwan liar without shame. Byzantine mathematics European mathematics Indian mathematics. An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia. Thus they searched out the texts of other creeds and the philosophies of non-Muslim sages in search of materials which might bolster their own ethics of purity and asceticism. Tydskrif vir Semitistiek15 1: The final goal of the Ikhwan is salvation; their Brotherhood is the ship of that salvation, and they foster a spirit of ikhwsn and good living accompanied by ‘actual knowledge’ as aids to that longed-for salvation.

La philosophie des Ihwan al-Safa’. Usually the tasks of the ruler are neatly distinguished from those of the prophet, because governance is a mundane business and prophecy is related to the life to come III,5—6.

If God is like the one, the Active Intellect is compared to number 2, the Universal Soul to number 3 and Nature or Matter to number 4 cf. Authorship of the Encyclopedia is usually ascribed to the mysterious ” Brethren of Purity ” a group of Ismaili [14] scholars placed in BasraIraq sometime around 10th century CE.

Matter, therefore, adopted the form of vapour which assumed the shape of water in due time. All human souls are immortal: Being is one solid body; it stuffs the whole space: In the final turn of events, the gazelle repays the tortoise by serving as a decoy and distracting the hunter while the rat and the others asfa the tortoise.

The materials of the work come chiefly from Aristotle, but they are conceived of in a Platonizing spirit, which places as the bond of all things a universal soul of the world with its partial or fragmentary souls. The order and character of emanation are described below. So, wherever a man stands on the earth, his head is sada towards the sky above the earth and his feet are always towards the bottom or centre of the earth.


The end of teaching is to purify the souls of the taught and give them correct behaviour in order to prepare them for immortality and happiness in the hereafter. It suggests that the text of the philosophical deliberations was given a final touching by the Imam, and the approved text was delivered to Abu Gafir to be forwarded possibly to the Ikhwan in Basra secretly. Ebraismo Cristianesimo IslamMilano: This explains the metaphysical origin of life on earth.

Ikhwan al-Safa

There are profound links between the epistemology and the soteriology doctrine of salvation of the Ikhwan, and it would xs be an exaggeration to say that the former feeds the latter. History of Islamic Philosophy. They regard the human being as a miniature world.

All of these men came from Basra and were linked to the Chancellery secretary Zayd b. The Encyclopedia is divided into fifty-two epistles rasa’il of varying lengths, which make up four books. In physical terms it is by caring for the jkhwan, which when healthy and balanced is the condition of the purification of the soul.

Twofold in the Creation The process of creation is divided twofold: Wright,Epistles The development of terminology is often in a Neoplatonic direction. Space and Time As regards space and time, their view was that both are not realities; space is more objective, since it is related to bodies which have dimensions: Naming and Dating 3.

Good, for the masses, is that which xs has enjoined, and evil, that which religion has prohibited. It, being the last, confirmed in them that which resembled its contents and abrogated that which was contrary to its precepts. International conference in honour of Paolo Lucentini, Naples 6—7 november Instrumenta Patristica et medievalia, 58Brepols: