after the quantization step in jpeg compression standard. It is based on decomposed application, if encryption and watermark are commutative, some computational .. fingerprint embedding and decryption for video distribution,” IEEE. 1 1 Commutative Encryption and Watermarking in Video Compression Ieee Transactions On Circuits And Systems For Video Technology, Vol. 17, No. 6, June. 1 1 Commutative Encryption and Watermarking in Video Compression 交換式 加密及浮水印法應用在視頻壓縮 IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for.

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Proposed watermarking and encryption scheme The concept of commutative watermarking-encryption CWE was first discussed in [ 3 ] with a special emphasis on watermarking in the encrypted domain.

Perceptibility of watermarks with increasing lengths, where. Note that this relation is unchanged if the two histogram bins are swapped.

Although the watermarking scheme is based on the histogram, it cannot be used in conjunction with a permutation cipher to form CWE scheme, because only a certain number of sample values in a histogram bin are modified.

The parameter set used for embedding was. The proposed scheme is based on the earlier ideas [ 113 ] described in Section 3. Ccommutative at Google Scholar J. Proposed watermarking and encryption scheme Y: Moreover, steps 3 and 4 call for a public key watermarking scheme, where there is a private embedding key and a public detection key, or an asymmetric scheme, where it is possible to verify the existence of a watermark without fully disclosing the embedding key or the watermark itself.

Second, and more importantly, it is not clear how exactly in step 4 the presence of in the scrambled work should be verified without disclosure of watermarkinf watermarking key. Image Communicationvol. In order to measure the perceptibility of an embedded mark, the Peak Signal-to-Noise Commutativve PSNR between the marked work and the original work was computed, as is common in the literature.

In general, it is hard to devise a CWE algorithm which is robust against a wide class of attacks, because in a CWE scheme the embedder must be able to operate in the encrypted domain and therefore cannot rely upon important perceptual features of the cover work.


In this scenario, rncryption number of attacks are possible, most importantly the case where sells a copy of in his own right. Performance analysis Robustness and Imperceptibility. Digital Signal Processing, Vol. In addition, we show that the presented CWE scheme can be integrated into a modified version of a protocol due to Craver and Katzenbeisser [ 2 ], enabling zero-knowledge verification of the watermark, meaning a verifier can verify the presence of a watermark without disclosure of the mark or the watermarking key.

Commutative Watermarking-Encryption of Audio Data with Minimum Knowledge Verification

In [ 11 ], however, a permutation cipher is used to permute the sample values in the time domain, thereby keeping the histogram invariant. Searching in Encrypted Databases With the advent of cloud computing, new security challenges have arisen. For these parameter choices, the proposed watermarking algorithm is extremely compressio against TSM attacks in resample mode, while the robustness against pitch-invariant mode is slightly worse, but still very good.

Note that for the watermarking algorithm described here, the watermarking key consists of a list of bin pairs. Encrypted with the proposed method. These goals call for a combination of the watermarking concepts described in [ 113 ]: For each the embedder computes a histogram bin pair in the following way: As described in [ 13 ], for finding the correct mean value after a potential TSM attack, the detector first computes a search spacewhere is a parameter governing the size of the search space.

The invariant feature space is therefore represented by the image histogram and a histogram-based algorithm can be used to embed the mark. Dispute Resolve Protocols The prime motivation to look at CWE schemes originates from the need to implement so-called Dispute Resolve Protocols, where a rights owner provides a digital media object to a distributorwho in turn sells to some customer.

In this modified version of the protocol, it is not necessary to publish because the permuted mark can be extracted directly from. Common bit depths for representing audio are 16, 20, or 24 bit.

My presentations Profile Feedback Log out. Indexed in Web of Science. In addition, watermarks are aand into the media data to have an additional layer of protection which is present even after the data have been decrypted. Commutative watermarking-encryption CWE means the combination of watermarking and encryption in such a way that the encryption and watermarking functions commute; that is, where is the encryption function, is the encryption key, is the watermarking key, is the cleartext media data, and is the mark to be embedded.


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On the other hand, sample manipulations like inserting Zero-Samples, periodic deletion of samples cropping, or CutSamples in StirMarkor manipulating the least significant bits LSBs of the samples do not affect the watermark. Note, however, that there are only different keys. The range of the audio sample values is splitted into equal-sized bins. In our opinion, this protocol, while being very ingenious, has two drawbacks: Announcement of evaluation test results for stepinternational evaluation project for digital watermark technology for music, http: The presented CWE scheme is not fully commutative in theory because of the padding needed in the encryption step: As mentioned above in Section 4.

Statistical Mechanics and Its Applicationsvol.

If a CWE scheme is used, compliant media players have the opportunity to detect and insert watermarks even in encrypted data. Let the watermark consist of bits.

Advances in Multimedia

The rest of the paper is organized as follows: An obvious solution is that embeds a watermark identifying as the rightful owner into and provides the marked object to. The marked jn work is encrypted and the mark is extracted. About project SlidePlayer Terms of Service.

If the distributor takes the role of the seller in this protocol and the rightsholder performs the en- and decryption operations in steps 1 and 4respectively, the problem mentioned above can be solved, if a CWE scheme for the media object is available.