Transcript of Coccidiosis bovina. Clasificación y etiología • Phylum Apicomplexa • Clase Sporozoa • Subclase Coccidia • Suborden Eimeriina • Familia. *Epidemiologia de enfermedades parasitariasen animales domesticos/capitulo 4 epidemiologia, diagnostico y control de la cocciodiosis. COCCIDIOSIS BOVINA presentado por: Carlos Eduardo Reyes Alvarado David Enrrique Puentes Johan Andrey Verá Jaimes José Daniel.

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Here, economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Mexico were estimated on an annual basis. The main factors taken into consideration for this assessment included the total number of animals at risk, potential detrimental effects of parasitism on milk production or coccdiiosis gain, and records of condemnation on livestock byproducts.

These estimates reflect the major effects on cattle productivity of six parasites, or parasite group. Considering that the national cattle herd registered in included The limitations of some of the baseline studies used to develop these estimates, particularly when extrapolated from local situations to a national scale, are acknowledged.

However, the general picture obtained from the present effort demonstrates the magnitude and importance of cattle parasitism in Mexico and the challenges to maximize profitability by the livestock industry without adapting sustainable and integrated parasite control strategies. Animal agriculture is an important sector of govina economy in Mexico, which ranks 7 th globally in terms cocidiosis the number of cattle produced for commercial purposes 1.

Inbovines comprised the second highest livestock species raised in the country after poultry 2. Despite increases in production forecasts due to improved genetics and feeding among other things 34parasitic diseases remain an important factor impacting the productivity of cattle in Mexico 5.

Furthermore, parasitic diseases can hinder the international trade of cattle raised in Mexico. For example, cattle intended for export are inspected at US ports of entry and are returned to Mexico if found infested with cattle fever ticks 6. Veracruz is the state with the largest herd that includes around 4 million head. Cattle graze in almost 2 million square kilometers of the territory, distributed in four pastoral regions according to agro-climatic conditions: Production systems and costs are largely dependent on the climatic conditions of the respective regions 8.

Occurrence of internal and external parasites in cattle throughout Mexico is favored by the predominance of bogina humid and sub-humid climates in tropical and subtropical latitudes. Cattle production provides an important economic activity for the large expanse of land in Mexico, and the United States US is the primary export market with an average of 1 million cattle imported by the US from Mexico between and 9.

Economic loss due to parasites in some countries where the cocidiosis industry is also an important economic activity has been estimated. A preliminary assessment revealed that the economic impact of parasitic diseases on cattle production in Mexico is uncertain 5131415 and which recognized the challenges involving the estimation of economic loss on the productivity of cattle due to parasitic diseases related to multifactorial variables influenced by geographic area and climatic conditions, management practices, and herd size and density.

This type of effort has been further complicated by the threat of parasiticide resistance in several populations of endo- and ectoparasites of cattle.

Thus, the results from the study presented here represent a systematic approach to ascertain economic losses due to cattle parasitism in Mexico. The present study aimed to calculate economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Coccidiiosis, including the main ecto- and endo-parasite species known to have a significant effect on the productivity of bovine populations in Mexico. Consideration was given to specific cases where parasiticide resistance increases the cost of efforts to control cocccidiosis parasites.

Endoparasites considered for the economic evaluation included: The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplushorn fly Haematobia irritansand stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans are the external parasites included in this analysis. Other parasites affecting cattle in Mexico were excluded obvina they: Parasites falling on those categories include Dictyocaulus viviparusNeospora caninumToxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvumTritrichomonas foetusDermatobia hominisTabanidaeand chewing lice.

The method to estimate the potential economic impact caused by each parasite species or group considered the number of animals at risk, data available on bovnia production loss, weight gain loss in beef cattle, or official reports on condemnation of livestock byproducts i. In most cases the economic analysis used data originated from local studies, generated primarily between and It must be clarified that a limitation of this approach is that estimates addressing data gaps were extrapolated from selected studies conducted in other countries on parasitic economic damage to cattle; whenever possible by making comparisons between studies conducted in Mexico under similar environmental conditions.


Thus, the potential economic impact assessment for cattle parasites estimated here is dependent on a wide variety of climatic factors. Grisi et al 12 validated this methodology to reassess the potential economic impact of cattle parasites in Brazil.


Because information coccidkosis production coccidosis was obtained from control animals, i. Thus, the estimates presented here do not necessarily represent the actual impact of cattle parasitism in Mexico but the potential losses expected in the absence of parasite control measures. Helminthic infections are an important cause of disease and productivity loss in livestock production worldwide. Moreover, tropical and template climatic conditions favor the presence and incidence of GIN, potentiating the effect on animal health and reducing livestock production.

This problem is not only caused by clinical parasitism; non-visible effects of the subclinical phase also provoke deficiencies in nutrient use, which can cause a major production loss 16 Impact of GIN on cattle production has been extensively studied worldwide. The effect of GIN on milk production was studied by Lima and Grisi 18 in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil where milk production of grazing cows medicated with albendazole at parturition was compared with untreated controls; an increase of A similar study conducted in Holand 19 reported an increase of 0.

Milk yield after anthelmintic treatment on pastured dairy cattle in the Netherlands was estimated to increase by 1. When Kabaka et al 21 evaluated the impact of GIN infection on cattle from two districts of Kenya, they found a daily loss of 1. Vercruysse et al 22 evaluated 11 commercial dairy farms in Belgium to study the effect of eprinomectin treatment at calving on milk production; in this study eprinomectin treatment resulted in an average increase of 0.

Considering that the average loss due to GIN in grazing cows is 0. In spite of the evident economic benefit that could represent the control of GIN in grazing dairy cows, it is important to remember that most anthelmintic drugs cannot be used in those animals while they are producing milk for human consumption.

Control de la coccidiosis bovina con amprol.

Thus, other control methods, based on alternative control measures ought to be used to reduce the economic impact.

Economic losses due to gastrointestinal nematodes among dairy and beef cattle in Mexico in Under the hot sub-humid conditions of Yucatan, Boina, there was a superior average weight gain of In a period of d, dewormed calves obtained an additional weight gain of 0. In Chiapas, Mexico hot and humid tropical regionan increase of Studies have shown that coccidiosks productivity of calves in tropical parts of Mexico is most affected by GIN during the rainy season 24 Thus, for estimation purposes a rainy period of 6 mo was applied to derive potential losses caused by GIN in calves from Mexico.

Considering an average loss of Major weight loss associated with eimeriosis in cattle is likely to occur within the first year of life when animals are most susceptible to Eimeria infection An estimated 77 million young cattle in the United States are infected by coccidia cocxidiosis the first year of their life, 4 million will be treated for eimeriosis, and 80, cattle naturally infected with Bovvina, could die from the disease Animals housed in large numbers with bad hygienic practices are more likely to contract the disease.

Therefore, feedlot and dairy cattle are the most susceptible. Eimeriosis in feedlot cattle is associated with stress caused by shipping, changes in ration as well as weather conditions, and overcrowding The most common species identified were E.

These authors 14 mentioned that these species are the most frequently found in cattleand are reported among the most pathogenic A further study by Rodriguez-Vivas et al 13 investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle of different ages in the novina of Mexico. Prevalence of Eimeria spp represented Based on an average of Liver fluke transmission depends on the presence of the snail intermediate host.


In Mexico Lymnaea humilis, L. Therefore, the distribution of the parasite is limited to those geographic areas where the appropriate snail species are present Liver flukes are enzootic in 29 of the 32 states of Mexico, especially where high annual rainfall and large areas of poorly drained pasture provide suitable habitats for the lymnaeid snails.

Therefore, the economic impact of bovine fasciolosis caused by F. According to the four pastoral regions where cattle are raised in Mexico, the average range rates of liver condemnation due to fasciolosis from all cattle slaughtered are: Arid and semiarid region 2. The overall estimation of annual losses suffered by the cattle industry of Mexico due to liver condemnation as a result of fasciolosis caused by F. Economic losses due to liver confiscation produced by Fasciola hepatica to cattle production in Mexico in Simpson and Courtney 42 conducted a survey in Florida, US, that showed the specific benefits of liver flukes control.

Animals treated with the appropriate antiparasitic drug were 8. Another study conducted 43 at a commercial cow-calf operation in Louisiana, showed that US calves from cows receiving treatments for both flukes and nematodes had an average weight gain advantage of 8. Because all treatment groups were maintained on the same conditions, the authors inferred that administration of flukicides to cows had a cocidiosis effect on productivity by increasing milk production, which resulted in heavier calves.

Recently, Charlier et al 44 conducted a trial on 11 dairy herds exposed to F. The authors found that closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable increase of kg in a d milk production 0. Based on this result it was estimated that the annual loss in milk production due to infection with Coccidlosis. The estimated loss associated with the effects of F.

Ticks and the pathogens they transmit to domestic animal species, humans, and wildlife are widely distributed throughout the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Ticks are responsible for a variety of losses, caused by the direct effect of attachment, injection of toxins, or through the morbidity and mortality associated with tick-borne pathogens 46and secondary problems as the enhancement of transmission of Dermatophilosismyiasis 47or udder damage by tick species belonging to the genus Amblyomma Recently, Grisi et al 12 estimated the annual costs associated with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus R.

Based on this information, the estimated number of cattle at risk of R. Losses bovian milk production caused by the cattle ticks R. These authors estimated that ticks coccidiosiis responsible for a reduction of Economic losses due to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplusrelated to milk and beef production in Mexico in Estimates of the losses inflicted by cattle ticks on beef cattle were based on Jonsson 52who reported daily losses of 1.

An average of Alonso-Diaz et al 53 found an average of Meanwhile, others 55 found that B. Considering that the beef cattle herd is composed of Therefore, the total economic loss attributable to R. Babesiosis and anaplasmosis are responsible for important economic losses in the cattle industry of tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The economic impact is a consequence of direct losses like mortality, abortions, reduction in meat and milk yield, obvina indirect effects associated with the application of disease and tick control measures.

Babesiosis and anaplasmosis are prevalent wherever R.

However; we were unable to estimate the economic bocina of babesiosis and anaplamosis on the cattle industry in Mexico because key epidemiological data, such as description of specific enzootic instability regions, mortality and incidence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis outbreaks, and number of abortions due to clinical cases and seasonal occurrence of outbreaks were not found during the search of the scientific literature.

The horn fly, Haematobia irritansis one of the coccjdiosis economically important pests of cattle worldwide 12 It is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite that feeds almost exclusively on cattle.

Losses due to horn fly infestation, based on the studies in Brazil 68 and Argentina 69are estimated as an average yearly weight loss of 3.