Results with 14 undergraduate Ss are almost identical to those of Bransford and Franks: Ss frequently reported recognizing new sentences derived from the. Citation, Bransford, J.D. and Franks, J.J., The Abstraction of Linguistic Ideas. Cognitive Psychology 2, (). (pdf). Summary of Experiment. Replicated J. D. Bransford and J. J. Franks’s (see record ) 2nd experiment in as great a detail as the description of the original procedure would .

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The implicit memory test was NOT affected by the type of question which was paired with 19771 word. This suggests that participants automatically integrate concepts they see into schemas that integrate the concepts. The Integrative Memory Tendency: Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior,4, Look Specifically at items 1,4,6,12, What was your average CR confidence rating given to these items?

Found evidence for depth of processing effects with Implicit memory tests. In addition to rating the sentence as new or old, they also assigned confidence values which stated how sure the subject was of their response.

Cognitive Psychology Class Notes: Schemas

Then they were asked to identify which of the sentences they had seen before. Some effects of grammatical transformations on the recall of English sentences.

The psychological reality of phrase-structure rules.

Dissertation, University of Minnesota, Even though there is considerable evidence that semantic and episodic memories become brasnford during normal comprehension, there is also evidence supporting the idea that these are separate memory systems. A second piece of evidence for semantic integration is that subjects were very good at responding “NEW” to sentences which combined ideas across groupings from the first list. Alphabetical List Categorical List.


Neurological Evidence supporting multiple long term memory systems. Results indicate that during an acquisition phase of the experiments, Ss spontaneously integrate the information expressed by a number of non-consecutively experienced but semantically related sentences into wholistic, semantic ideas, where these ideas encompass more information than any acquisition sentence contained. Interlingual facilitation of short-term memory.

Perception and Psychophysics, 1791, 2, Subjects are asked to identify the briefly presented word.

STEP: Scripts: Memory: Bransford and Franks

The higher the propositional complexity, the more confident the subjects were that they had heard the sentence in List 1. Second, PET scan results show different patterns of activation dependent upon whether subject is accessing a semantic or an episodic memory. Ss’ subsequent attempts frnaks recognize those exact sentences heard during acquisition are shown to be a function of the complete ideas acquired.

After they heard and answered 24 sentences, there was a five minute delay, and subjects were then presented with a second list of sentences. Cognitive Psychology 2 Ss become less confident of having heard particular sentences as a function of the degree to which a sentence fails to exhaust all the semantic relations characteristic of a complete idea.

They identified the long sentences composed of the short sentences they had seen more readily than the short sentences themselves. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior,2, Now after they read the words and answer the questions, the subjects are randomly split into two groups.

Again, this is on more instance where we see “memory for meaning”, rather than verbatim recall of what was previously presented.

Integration of linguistic materials. Recognition memory for syntactic and semantic aspects of connected discourse. Alphabetical List Categorical List Memory: The phenomenon of “idea acquisition and retention” is demonstrated experimentally and contrasted with an “individual sentence memory” 11971 of view. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior,5, They constructed a clever experiment which showed how we link together related ideas into an integrated whole.


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Propositional complexity in the first list varied from 1 to 3. Semantic Memory seems to be unaffected, while episodic memory is considerably disrupted, or not available for access. The participants were given a set of short sentences that expressed simple concepts. Thus, Ss are most confident of “recognizing” sentences expressing all the semantic relations characteristic of a complete idea, in spite of the fact that such sentences expressed more information than was communicated by any single sentence on the acquisition list.

Grammatical structure and the immediate recall of English sentences. These our ONE proposition statements. What was your average CR given for these items?

Each word is flashed on computer screen for 35 ms. This is a little bizarre that a consciously chosen encoding strategy can affect the unconscious process of Implicit memory tests.

Subjects were much more likely to “false alarm” or false positive to 3 and 4 propositional sentences. Since the complete integration of the related sentences resulted in a four proposition structure, they falsely believed the 4 proposition statements presented during the testing phase had indeed come from the original list, because that combined proposition is consistent with their internal mental representation of those related, but unconnected sentences.

Shows evidence that learning takes place when the subject is not aware their memory is going to be tested.